Lost in Translation? Adapting Existing Stories for Film April 25, 2011Posted by leskanturek in Animation, Film, Student Blog posts, Student Post, Visual Narrative.
Tags: Animation Adaptations, Arielle Jovellanos, Coraline, Film Adaptations, The Last Airbender
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Post by Arielle Jovellanos
Adapt – n. – make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose. (wordnet.princeton.edu)
Caption: (above left and clockwise) How to Train Your Dragon 2010, Alice in Wonderland 2010, X-Men 2000, Scooby Doo 2002, Dragonball Evolution 2009, & The Phantom of the Opera 2004.
Adaptations. In a world full of penny-pinching consumers in a bad economy, adaptations are all the rage in Hollywood where many executives would rather invest their energy, time, and money on adapting proven successes rather than risking it on a new, untested idea. Hence, we get things like Alice in Wonderland, Twilight, Sex and the City, Harry Potter, and Iron Man all up in our movie theaters. (And then there are the sequels, but that’s a whole other discussion…)
Now, just because there are a lot of something-to-film adaptations out there, doesn’t necessarily mean that they’re all good. Adaptations can be tricky. It is much easier said than done to turn a book into a movie or a cartoon into a live-action film. It’s not simply a case of, say, buying a whole bunch of copies of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, handing them out to your cast, and saving money on printing an actual script. There is a lot of work that goes into adapting an existing to work into a film because it is essentially about translating a story into a completely different medium and still keeping its heart intact. What works in one medium may not automatically translate successfully to fit the big screen.
Let’s take a look at these two movies that were adapted from successful source material and try to analyze what makes them work or makes them fail as full-length feature films…
Caption: (above left) Director Henry Selick’s Coraline 2009 (above right) Director M. Night Shyamalan’s The Last Airbender 2010
Coraline, a 2009 stop-motion animation film directed by Nightmare Before Christmas and James and the Giant Peach’s Henry Selick was adapted from Neil Gaiman’s critically acclaimed children’s novella of the same name. In this case, save for a few wonderfully disturbing illustrations by Dave McKean interspersed throughout the pages of the book, the film crew had only the story as reference to create the world and define the art direction.
Caption: (above) Dave McKean’s book cover and illustrations for Neil Gaiman’s Coraline 2002
As someone who read the book ages before seeing this film, I admit I was a bit surprised by the changes made to the storyline—most notably, the addition of the new character “Wybie,” a boy who lives in Coraline’s new neighborhood.
Ultimately, while it does stray from the source material, the decision to add Wybie into the movie was a smart one. In the book, though Coraline is alone her thought process is written through the narration and the reader gets a grasp of her personality through their understanding of the text. In the movie, Coraline needed somebody to talk to so the audience could visually understand her personality and motives without the filmmakers having to default to in-head voice-over.
Caption: (above) Screencaps from Selick’s Coraline 2009 film
There are a few other changes made, in regards to setting, pacing, dialogue, and the like, but in the end I feel everything added up to a high-quality film adaptation. What I personally find most successful about Coraline’s adaptation is that the filmmakers did not get themselves caught up in word-for-word accuracy to the book. Instead, they managed to distill the progressively building feelings of disturbing dread the reader experiences while reading, and manifested that same feeling on screen.
For example, art direction-wise, the film literally does become darker as the plot progresses, contrasting sharply to the bright colors Coraline first encounters when entering the Other World. This direction alone tells the story of the book visually in a way that needs no written or narrated explanation for the audience.
Caption: (above) Screencaps from Michael Dante DiMartino & Bryan Konietzko’s animated Nickelodeon series Avatar: The Last Airbender 2005-08.
Moving on to another film adaptation, director M. Night Shyamalan’s live-action movie The Last Airbender (2010) to many critics and fans of Avatar: The Last Airbender (2005-08), the original animated TV show, was a disappointing, boring, and over-expository mess which failed to do justice to Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko’s popular and award winning source material.
Caption: (above) Screencaps from Shyamalan’s The Last Airbender
In my opinion, there are tons of reasons as to why this movie failed, but the biggest problems for me were:
1. The movie told what was going on rather than showed what was going on. The movie attempted to squish in the arch of an entire 20-episode season into 103 minutes. To fill in the blanks, Shyamalan decided to employ the use of a narrator to explain away what happened rather than letting the visuals speak for themselves.
For example, to explain the budding romantic relationship between two characters, the narrator blandly says to the audience, “They became very close” instead of actually showing the two characters becoming closer. In this case, voice-over wasn’t used for any artistic purpose; it was used because the visuals of the film weren’t strong enough to carry the storyline without a narrator.
Caption: (above) Map of the Asian-inspired world of TV series Avatar: The Last Airbender
2. The movie’s direction failed to focus on the bigger picture, instead choosing to focus on unnecessary details and losing the actual message of the series in the process.
One of the first things people should ask themselves when considering making an animation is, “Why is it animated?” This is why it is so difficult to transform animation into live action. Through its entire conception, Avatar: The Last Airbender was inherently designed to be an animated series. The realm of animation opened several opportunities to DiMartino and Konietzko in the original show. For example, the fact that it was animated allowed the audience to suspend disbelief immediately concerning the manipulation and “bending” of the elements and the animal hybrids, which populate the Asian-inspired fantasy world.
The filmmakers of The Last Airbender got way too caught up in the little details such as having the animal hybrids show up for ten seconds even though within the script, they ultimately held little importance on the plot, making them seem like random anomalies on screen. There’s a difference between being meticulous with creating a fantasy world, and forcing something into the film just because it worked on TV. Because they were focusing on things like this, they lost focus on the actual story.
Caption: (above left) Original show concept art for character “Katara” by Bryan Konietzko, inspired by Asian & Inuit culture. (center) “Katara” as she appears in the show. (right) “Katara” as she appears in the film, played by Caucasian actress Nicola Peltz.
Yet at the same time, the filmmakers decided to forgo the heavily researched and accurate Asian-inspired art direction, which defined and set the show apart for its respectful and unique homage to Asian cultures in an American-made cartoon. The overarching theme of the series concerned the traditionally Asian concept of finding and maintaining balance and the Asian-inspired world only aided in emphasizing that theme.
In Shyamalan’s adaptation, he completely lost the spirit of the cartoon when he decided to turn the film into a generic good-versus-evil story and subsequently threw in some European-based, Lord of the Rings-esque elements along with vaguely Asian-ish inspirations into the art direction; this made for a very confusing fantasy world that seemed like it didn’t quite know what it was trying to be and therefore prevented the audience from really understanding what this world was about.
It is bizarre that—of all things—the largest and most dramatic changes they made from TV-to-film were in the Asian-inspired, art direction, which already came from real world influences and could have easily been adapted to live-action. In giving up this aspect of the world, they lost the entire heart of the story and changed it into something else entirely. Unlike Coraline, The Last Airbender failed to capture the feeling of the source material or concentrate on the most important elements of the story, resulting in an incredibly poor film adaptation.
Anime Transformation March 4, 2011Posted by leskanturek in Animation, Art History, Comics, Film, Student Blog posts, Student Post, Visual Narrative.
Tags: Anime, Death Note, Sailor Moon, Sarah Ding, Transformation
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Post by Sarah Ding
Anime is a distinct art style that originated in Japan during the 20th century, in which Japanese filmmakers first became influenced by Western animation techniques. The highly successful Disney 1937 animated film “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” became a huge influence on manga artists, who simplified many of the techniques and styles of Walt Disney’s animations due to low budget and labor. Throughout time, the distinct look of anime has transformed significantly, and although there are numerous different styles of anime, they all have common stylistic elements typical to the anime style.
So what exactly is the anime style? Although the features of the face and proportions of anime characters are exaggerated, they are not necessarily classified as cartoons. The most distinct feature of anime characters is their overly large eyes, in order to express their emotions through to the viewer.
However, recently anime has started to become extraordinarily more realistic in terms of the facial features. Even body proportions are beginning to fit the standard human proportions we would normally recognize. The most familiar form of anime could arguably be Sailor Moon, created by manga artist Naoko Takeuchi.
(above) Sailor Moon, A team of magical cute girls who are in reality magical warriors destined to save the Earth, and later the entire galaxy. Their features and proportions embody the look of anime girls.
Anime might on the surface appear to all look very similar but is in fact quite varied. The anime style of Sailor Moon is remarkably different than the style the viewer sees in Death Note, a well-known manga created by writer Tsugumi Ohba and illustrated by manga artist Takeshi Obata.
(above) Two of the characters in Deathnote , Light Yagami, and “L” .
The art and possibly even the story line has taken on a more realistic approach. Here, the manga artist is deviating from the usual large eyes and small mouth characteristics that are typical of anime and drawing features more in proportion.
(above) Death Note illustrated by Takeshi Obata
Although there will always be different variations of anime (from very generic to semi-realistic), I feel that this style in general is starting to become much more realistic by opening itself up to different influences and styles.
NOIR- Assignment January 26, 2011Posted by leskanturek in Class Assignments, Film, Noir, Visual Narrative.
Tags: Noir HW assignment, Noir Illustration
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(above) Left- Man Ray’s Cadeau 1921 (center) The Black Swan (right) Journey into Mystery
You are going to create/draw/paint etc. a Black & White narrative based on your 420 character story that we started in class. (For examples of 420 Character stories look at illustrator Lou Beach’s wonderful site http://www.420characters.com/ (420 characters is the maximum length of a facebook status update).
The length of your visual narrative is up to you and dependant on your story. It might be possible to create a great narrative in one drawing, you might need 2, 3 or 10 consecutive pieces or panels. It really depends on what will do your concept/story justice. Don’t forget the possibility of working in 3-D.
(above) The Tragical Comedy or Comical Tragedy of Mr. Punch Art by Dave McKean Writeen by Neil Gaiman
Your finished piece is going to be submitted to faculty member Ben Katchor who is creating an 11″ X 17″ 4 page newsprint tabloid. There are going to be 7 different tabloids all together. One to be distributed each day of the New school’s Noir Festival which will take place Friday, April 1, 2011 – Friday, April 8, 2011. This is a judged submission situation — only about 26 strips and drawings will be used over the seven tabloids.
Your work can be designed to fill an entire 11 x 17 page or any portion of that size. It must be all in black and white (or grey tones)
Think of what we saw in class and the adjectives you wrote down to describe Noir.
- Moral ambiguity
- Personal viewpoints
- An innocent being accused
Try and distill the basic ideas away from the icon of a detective.
The visual clichés of 1940-50s film noir should be avoided. Think about work that expands upon the conventional idea of what “noir” imagery might be. The “noir” impulse can include cynical attitudes, absurd and dark situations, extreme psychological conditions, quasi-documentary authenticity, and amoral or alienated behavior.
Good Luck -Les
P.O.V Assignment/Fall ’10 August 30, 2010Posted by leskanturek in Class Assignments, Class Topics, P.O.V., Point of View, Visual Narrative.
Tags: Point of View Assignment
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Sketches due: 9/13
Finish due: 9/20
For the finish you will be handing in 2 sequential Color illustrations.
The heart of this assignment is to consider and change the point of view you would normally take when illustrating.
• Select a story from one of the audio recordings of Lou Beach’s “420 characters”. or read the stories yourself at Lou’s site. They are stories “limited to 420 characters each, (including spaces and punctuation) by illustrator Lou Beach. The audio recordings are by Jeff Bridges and Ian McShane.
• Imagine yourself as a character in a story and draw from that perspective, both emotionally and physically. It can be the P.O.V. of the main character or of a minor one, the character that you are exploring could even be implied but not explicitly mentioned . It doesn’t even have to be human.
What/who are you looking at and from where? Remember, you are now in the scene, not just a viewer/audience member. Try a range of viewpoints including an extreme POV and see what happens in your sketches. Keep in mind that your point of view encompasses not only a physical perspective but also a mental one.
Take the story of The Wizard of OZ as an example (obviously more than 420 words): Would the Wicked Witch of the West see Dorothy differently through her point of view than the way Glinda the good witch sees her? Think about the slides we saw in class of a child’s point of view, there was the physical (under the table or being baptized), but also the the children’s drawing of the WTC on 9-11.
Do your research. Act out the scene with some friends. Take pictures. Research your subject. Don’t take anything for granted. What would you really experience or see if you were that character. Think of the story you selected as a beginning point. Should the story take place in a different locale or time period? That’s up to you. Lou’s stories are open to a lot of interpretations.
Your finished illustration should be roughly 8.5” X 11” either horizontal or vertical. I’d like at least 6 sketches from different points of view. Not done in your sketchbook. You can do more than 6 of course and pick more than one story.
Your sketches do not have to be 8.5” X 11”. As long as they are proportionate to a rectangle. They don’t have to be in color but you might want to indicate what colors will be in the sketch.
Inkstuds: The Radio Show about Comics December 31, 2009Posted by leskanturek in Art History, Artists, Comics, Graphic Novels, Visual Narrative, Visually Cool & Relevant.
Tags: comic artist interviews, Inkstuds
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Despite the porn sounding name if you go to the Inkstuds site you will not find pictures of Jack Kirby giving you the full monty. What you will find is a radio show out of Vancouver hosted by Robin McConnell thoughtfully discussing the art, creators, the industry, inspiration, history and influence of comics.
McConnell’s show which has been “on the air” for the past 4 years offers an incredible range of interviewees including ; Ralph Steadman, Seth, Tony Millionaire, Joe Sacco, James Jean, Barron Storey, Rutu Modan, Scott McCloud, Art Spiegleman on Chris Ware, Rick Geary…the list goes on. I highly recommend tuning in to the show and hearing the intelligent discussion that takes place.
Film & Graphic Novels, Twin Sons of Different Mothers December 8, 2009Posted by leskanturek in Books, Comics, Film, Story Boards, Visual Narrative.
Tags: FIlm books, Graphic narrative and film, Graphic Novel book suggestions, storyboards, Visual narrative books, Will Eisner
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Since the advent of photography there has been a cross fertilization between the camera and the canvas. Early silent filmmakers were inspired by Gustave Dorés book illustrations (L’inferno 1911 by Francesco Bertolini). Film pioneer George Melies was influenced by illustrator Henri de Montaut’s work for Jules Verne’s From the Earth to the Moon, inspiration has see-sawed back and forth many times. Film noir influenced pulp images and early comics. Presently we’re seeing the trend of graphic novels being adapted to film. it makes perfect sense, The mediums are closely related and share a common visual vocabulary. Animation has long bridged (and blurred) the line between film and drawing.
Any one interested in visual story telling; Comic books, graphic novels, story boards should include in their education a critical eye on film and a reading of books that describe the visual narrative tools of film. How to compose shots, visual sequence and how it affects a narrative, point of view, this is all the common vocabulary of telling a story visually whether it be in print or film.
Below are a few film books that I think bear looking at for your narrative education. Especially for those of you interested in storyboards. It then becomes extremely important to understand and speak in the language of film photography.
Setting Up Your Shots: Great Camera Moves Every Filmmaker Should Know By Jeremy Vineyard
This is a basic book that describes different shots in film with an accompanying illustration and a suggestion of a film that employs an example of the shot. It’s written by a non-professional which has strengths and weaknesses.
I like the book because it is so basic and written for someone who knows nothing about film. It will get you thinking along film lines very quickly. I have read criticism of the book that the names of shots in some cases is inaccurate and some of the examples of where you can see the shot are general which can be frustrating.
(Above) Film Directing Shot by Shot: Visualizing from Concept to Screen: by Stephen Katz
(Above) Master Shots: 100 Advanced Camera Techniques to Get an Expensive Look on Your Low-Budget Movie by Christopher Kenworthy. Master Shots has an example of the shot in a film and different views of the shot using poser figures.
The above is by no means all the books out there just a couple to start you thinking from the film side vs. the graphic novel/comic book side.
(Above) Comics and Sequential Art by Will Eisner is a fantastic book my a master story teller. One of the things that impresses me about this book is that Eisner addresses the concept of time in the narrative. How to depict a finite amount of time passing which i think is very much akin to film.
In the above panel Eisner has linked 2 simultaneous actions, the dripping faucet in the extreme foreground and the character entering. The slow drip is the reference point for time. Looking at only 3 panels you can tell it has taken the character a long time to enter. That’s an understanding of visual narrative. There is a wonderful Hamlet soliloquy drawn by Eisner in the book as well as other gems that really show why he is considered a master storyteller. The book I’d say is an absolute to pick up.